EnKlein Technology and Innovation

Analog Source Challenges

Analog and digital interconnects perform different functions. Everyone agrees that they are transmission media for music. Analog music has a complex waveform. The individual sounds of instruments and voices are distinguishable. Digital music is a single carrier frequency where binary information, 1s, and 0s, represent all music as a data block.

Digital music is transformed into analog music at some point in your system, as speaker drivers are mechanical devices. Analog music typically remains analog throughout the entire system.

So far, we have established analog music as a complex waveform compared to digitized music. The physics behind each type of music format is different, each with different challenges and solutions.

Enter the four wisemen you may recognize: Oliver Heaviside, Hendrik Lorentz, Heinrich Hertz, and James Maxwell. Maxwell created classical electromagnetism, and Heaviside and Lorentz refined and created practical applications of Maxwell's work, amongst other contributions. Hertz's work is prevalent in the world. For example, the technical terms "Hz, kHz, MHz" are named for Hertz and are typically found on the specification page of stereo equipment manuals.

Now, we have the mathematics and physics to describe analog waveforms and how they interact along a wire/cable. The group delay is an efficient measurement for complex analog waveforms,  a Heaviside contribution to science. This simple principle allows a purposeful interpretation of complex music and speech as frequency blocks.   With this technique, we can measure velocity differences between groups.  

Group delay has an audible impact on amplified music and our cable design process. Group delay is more complex than our simplified description, as impedance, capacitance, resistance, and reactance vary over frequency and materials. It's known that waveforms don't travel at the same speed over cables.

 The components in your stereo have varying specifications in their manuals and often include industry measurements that obfuscate design issues. The electrical variation of system components adds to the performance degradation of poorly engineered cable designs. 

Science implies that identical cables replaying identical music will have measurable differences between varying amplifiers, preamps, and speakers. 

Physics and mathematics allow EnKlein to engineer analog interconnect solutions to reduce and remove these negative, undesirable interactions.

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